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Estimation of Japanese encephalitis virus infection prevalence in mosquitoes and bats through nationwide sentinel surveillance in Indonesia
Indonesia belongs to endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE), yet data regarding the true risk of disease transmission are lacking. While many seroprevalence studies reported its classic enzootic transmission, data related to the role of bats in the transmission of JE virus are limited. This current study aimed to identify the potential role of bats in the local transmission of the JE virus to aid the ongoing active case surveillance in Indonesia, in order to estimate the transmission risk. Mosquitoes and bats were collected from 11 provinces in Indonesia. The detection of the JE virus used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Maps were generated to analyze the JE virus distribution pattern. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify risk factors of JE virus transmission. JE virus was detected in 1.4% (7/483) of mosquito pools and in 2.0% (68/3,322) of bat samples. Mosquito species positive for JE virus were Culextritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui, whereas JE-positive bats belonged to the genera Cynopterus, Eonycteris, Hipposideros, Kerivoula, Macroglossus, Pipistrellus, Rousettus, Scotophilus and Thoopterus. JE-positive mosquitoes were collected at the same sites as the JE-positive bats. Collection site nearby human dwellings (AOR:2.02; P= 0.009) and relative humidity of >80% (AOR: 2.40; P= 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for JE virus transmission. The findings of the current study highlighted the likely ongoing risk of JE virus transmission in many provinces in Indonesia, and its potential implications on human health.